How to produce Bio Organic Phosphate (BOP) at your Farm

How to produce Bio Organic Phosphate (BOP) at your Farm
Sustainable Plant Nutrient Management

Muhammad Ahmad

Student at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

Share it:

How do you make bio organic phosphate (BOP)?

How Farmers Can Prepare BOP at Home

Phosphorus promotes strong root development, fortifies stems, and enhances flower and seed production, all of which contribute to uniform maturity and higher crop yields. It enriches the soil by increasing legumes’ ability to fix nitrogen. In addition, phosphorus regulates nutritional content, increases disease resistance, and enhances crop quality. Because of its adaptable function and the fact that it is essential for plant development in different stages, it is necessary for sustainable agriculture (sustainable plant nutrition).

Bio-organic phosphate is a phosphorus-rich bio-fertilizer that gives us a good amount of phosphorus in very few resources. In this process, we use microbes to activate the rock phosphate biologically. The process is simple, and we can easily do it on the farm.

Why do we need BOP when we have other phosphorus sources like diammonium phosphate (DAP)?

In developing countries, the prices of phosphorus fertilizers are very high. For example, in developing countries like Pakistan, the cost of DAP fertilizers is about 45 dollars per bag. This provides about 23 kg of phosphorus, but if we use 3 bags of BOP (Bio Organic Phosphate), it will cost around 10 dollars (if we produce it at the farm level) and provide us (our crop) with about 30 kg of phosphorus.

diammonium phosphate (DAP)

Diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer

The raw material we need to make BOP

  • Farmyard manure (FYM):

Farmyard manure refers to the agricultural waste on our farm, including animal dung and crop/plant residues. We can mix 30% plant residues and 70% animal dung. Try to use animal waste having a moisture level below 40%.

  • Rock phosphate:

It is a mineral found in nature on all continents of the world. It contains more than 30% of phosphorus, but most of it is unavailable to plants if applied directly. Try to get a rock phosphate (of good quality) for the best results, but don’t worry, you can also use cheap quality because you are making it for your own use.

  • Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB):

Their function is to solubilize the phosphorus present in the soil and minerals. They convert the non-active form of phosphorus to P2O5, the active form of phosphorus. Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Rhizobium sp., and Escherichia sp. These are examples of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB).

How to make a culture of PSB?

  • Ingredients: 1 liter of PSB solution, 1 kg of jaggery or molasses, and a half kg of boiled rice
  • Container: Take a drum or another container that can hold about 100 liters of water.
  • Mixing: Add 1 liter of PSB solution to a container containing 100 liters of water. Then add the jaggery and boiling rice.
  • Stirring: Stir the mixture every day for 2 to 3 minutes using a plastic or wooden stick. This aids in the distribution of components and promotes the development of the PSB culture.
  • Fermentation: Allow the mixture to ferment for 5-6 days. During this time, the PSB culture will develop and grow more active. After fermentation, it will be ready to use.

How to make BOP (Bio Organic Phosphate)?

  • Step 1: Find a good dried ground and lay a polythene sheet on it. Spread a layer of farmyard manure on it and sprinkle phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on it evenly.
  • Step 2: Spread rock phosphate on the farm yard manure and sprinkle phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) again.
  • Step 3: Spread another layer of farm yard manure on it. Sprinkle phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) again. Add 2 or 3 alternative layers of rock phosphate and farmyard manure while sprinkling the PSB.
  • Step 4: After every 5 to 6 days, properly aerate the pile by mixing it. You can mix it with a spade or a tractor implement. Sprinkle a good amount of PSB on it while mixing.

After 4 to 5 weeks, your fertilizer will be ready. You can use it in this form or granulate it if you have more resources. Its efficiency is best in soils having a pH greater than eight because of its low pH.

Total amounts of rock phosphate and cow dung: We need 1:1 of farmyard manure, and rock phosphate has more than 30% phosphorus. It will give us about 20% of phosphate in BOP.

How to use it? – How to apply Bio Organic Phosphate to your farm?

We can apply BOP at the basal dose by incorporating it into the soil. The combined use of a half bag of DAP (50kg) and a full bag of BOP gives us the same amount of phosphorus as a single DAP, and the crops will maintain the same phosphorus uptake and save on farming costs. We can use PSB with irrigation to enhance the efficiency of the BOP and other phosphoric fertilizers.

Note: Always consult your local, licensed agriculture expert/agronomist before producing and applying the fertilizer. Please analyze the percentage of phosphorus in the fertilizer and apply it according to the needs of your following crop.


Biswas, S. S., Biswas, D., Ghosh, A., Sarkar, A., Das, A., & Roy, T. (2022). Phosphate solubilizing bacteria inoculated low-grade rock phosphate can supplement P fertilizer to grow wheat in sub-tropical inceptisol. Rhizosphere, 23, 100556.

Dev, T & Devi, Nongthombam & Sarangthem, Indira & Lhungdim, Jamkhogin & Singh, N & Das, Hiren. (2020). Effect of rock phosphate, PSB and FYM on P concentration and dry matter yield of soybean (Glycine max). International Journal of Chemical Studies. 8. 627-630. 10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i6i.10842

Ditta A, Khalid A. Bio-Organo-Phos: A Sustainable Approach for Managing Phosphorus Deficiency in Agricultural Soils [Internet]. Organic Fertilizers – From Basic Concepts to Applied Outcomes. InTech; 2016. Available from:

Billah, Motsim, Matiullah Khan, Asghari Bano, Sobia Nisa, Ahmad Hussain, Khadim Muhammad Dawar, Asia Munir, and Naeem Khan. (2020). Rock Phosphate-Enriched Compost in Combination with Rhizobacteria; A Cost-Effective Source for Better Soil Health and Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Productivity, Agronomy 10, no. 9: 1390.


We join forces with N.G.O.s, Universities, and other organizations globally to fulfill our common mission on sustainability and human welfare.