Climate and Soil Requirements for Artichoke Farming

Artichokes Climate Requirements

Artichokes are perennial plants native to Mediterranean countries, and this means they thrive in temperate climates, mild cool, and coastal areas with low frost risk. The optimum temperatures for artichoke cultivation are 20-24°C (68-75°F) during the day and 12-14 °C (54-57 °F) during the night. The plants can tolerate temperatures of -3 to -5℃ (26.6-23 °F), but any temperature below 1℃ (33.8°F) is harmful to the artichokes. When the temperature is between 0 °C (32 °F) and -3 °C( 26.6 °F), bract cells start to die, and once we have temperature further decreased up to -5 °C (23 °F), necrosis of leaves and stems is a common phenomenon. In areas with frost dangers, a common technique is to cut back the plant’s foliage in the fall during dormancy and mulch heavily around them, burying the plant under soil and straws up to 30-46 cm (1-1.5 ft). Mulching can increase the tolerance of the plants to low temperatures, but no plant can escape severe damage in temperatures below -9 °C (15 °F). 

The plants need to experience some chilling (200-1300 hours at 10 ℃ 50 °F or lower) to flower (vernalization). Depending on the variety, around 200-1300 chilling hours may be needed for the artichokes to produce flowers. Finally, artichokes can withstand temperatures above 30°C (86°F), but under such conditions, the flower heads start to harden and become difficult to eat, reducing their commercial value.

Soil requirements for Artichoke Farming

Artichokes can grow in a wide range of soils but prefer heavy, deep, fertile, loam-loamy clay soils provided the aeration and drainage is proper for the plant to thrive. In addition, they love high environmental humidity levels and good access to sunlight. Farmers should avoid artichoke cultivation in light soils with very low water holding capacity. We consider the pH of 6-7 as optimum, but the plants can grow well in soil with a pH of 8. The plants can grow in fields with slight slopes (hilly areas), but in that case, different irrigation strategy is needed. Artichokes have a moderate salt tolerance, but significant yield reduction occurs when the soil salinity levels are above 6 dS/m. More specifically, an 11% reduction in production is expected for every increase of 1 dS/m. Finally, it is recommended to test the irrigation water and avoid using it if the boron levels exceed 4 ppm. 


Fast Facts about Artichoke

Artichoke Health Benefits

Artichoke Plant Information

How to Grow Artichokes at Home

How to Grow Artichokes for Profit – Professional Artichoke Farming

Artichoke Propagation

Climate and Soil Requirements for Artichoke Farming

Soil Preparation and Planting in Artichoke Farming

Artichoke Water Requirements and Irrigation Systems

Artichoke Fertilization Requirements

Artichoke Farming: Harvest, Yield, Storage, and Post-harvest handling

Artichoke Pests, Diseases, and Weed management

Artichokes Wholesale Market


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