Cacao production Challenges and Management Strategies

Cacao production: Challenges and Management Strategies

Cocoa has long been an important economic commodity in Ghana and a major source of revenue and export (Okyere & Mensah, 2016). The cocoa business employs around 2 million people […]

cacao variety and propagation

Cacao Variety Selection and Propagation – What are the 3 major variety of cacao?

Three main varieties of cacao have been identified. Their names are Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario (Minimal et al., 2019). The Forastero has a milder flavor than the Criollo but is […]

Cacao Soil requirements and Planting distances

Cacao Soil requirements and Planting distances

Cocoa is grown on many soil types. Cacao trees are more susceptible to moisture stress than many other tropical plants. In addition, cacao trees suffer from waterlogging (Anim-Kwapong & Frimpong, […]

cacao irrigation

Water needs and Irrigation of Cacao

The high average annual rainfall ranges from 78 – 216 cm (31 – 85 inches) in Ghana, unevenly distributed in most years. Coupled with the high evapotranspiration and loss by […]

cacao fertilization

Cacao Fertilization and Nutrient Requirements

Modern cocoa farming aims to maximize early growth and achieve high initial yields and later sustained peak yields. To achieve this, one must have a good understanding of the factors […]

Cacao Plant Protection

Cacao Plant Protection – Major Stresses, Disease and Pest of Cacao

Over the next 30 years, it is expected that cocoa-growing areas may decrease by up to 20–30% globally. This is because cocoa trees are already finding it difficult to survive […]

Cacao pruning

Cacao tree Pruning

In cacao cultivation, pruning is considered an essential yield-increasing measure. However, the way it affects the growth and yield of the cacao tree and how these are influenced by the […]

Harvest, Handling and Storage of Cacao

Yield, Harvest, Handling and Storage of Cacao

Around 95% of the total cacao globally is produced by 5-6 million smallholder farmers from Asia, Africa, Australia, and Latin America, owning farms of 2-5 hectares (M.Kozicka et al.,2018). West […]

Sales, Trading, and Shipping Cocoa Beans 

Sales, Trading, and Shipping Cocoa Beans 

Cocoa is sold to either Local Processing Companies or international grinders. New data from Ghana’s Cocobod (the agency coordinating the Cocoa production sector) showed that processing of the commodity from […]